Visualizing large hierarchies

From Presonal Information Management resouces
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Visualizing large hierarchies

Besides lines and nodes (the way file hierarchies are presented in today's file managers) and indented outlines (like the table of content of a document) there are several other (large) hierarchy visualizations. Most of these visualizations do provide an overall view on a hierarchy but most are not suitable to manage personal information. Some of them focus only one aspect of information items (e.g. size) and do not provide enough contextual clues for easy performing pim activities.

* 3-dimensional cone trees [1]
Figure 1: The cone tree
* fviz (improved cone trees or a balloon view of radial trees) [2]
Figure 2: Cam tree
* Dynamic pruning in the TreeBrowser with dynamic queries[3]
Figure 3: TreeBrowser with pruning by dynamic queries
* Hyperbolic trees (+focus)[4]
Figure 4: Hyperbolic tree
* Treemap (1991) uses a size of files and visualizes them as rectangles where the biggest file takes the biggest space on screen [33]. This visualization is good to spot biggest files but not for everyday management. [5]
Figure 5: Treemap
* StepTree - a 3D treemap to navigate large hierarchies [6]
Figure 6: StepTree
* Beamtrees[7]
Figure 7: Beamtree
* Botanical Trees[7]
Figure 8: Botanical tree
* PhylloTrees[8]
Figure 9: Phyllotree
* Information cube (a nested box metaphor) [9]
Figure 10: Information cube
* Fractal trees[10]
Figure 11: Fractal tree
* Circular trees[11]
Figure 13: Circular tree
* PolyPlane trees[12]
Figure 12: PolyPlane tree
* Information slices: Visualising and Exploring Large Hierarchies using Cascading, Semi-Circular Discs[13]
Figure 13: Information slices
* Hierarchical Edge Bundles[14]
Figure 13: Information slices
* Radial tree [15][16]
Figure 13: Information slices
* Disc Trees (plain disc trees and compact disc trees) (a variant of Cone trees)[17]
Figure 13: Information slices
* Cat-a-Cone [18]
Figure 13: Information slices
* RF-Cone [19]
Figure 13: Information slices

* LyberWorld
* Bubble tree [20]
Figure 14: Bubble tree
* Tree radial [20]
Figure 15: Tree radial
* Tree walker [20]
Figure 16: Tree Walker

Overview papers - Further reading:

Ivan Herman, Guy Melançon and M. Scott Marshall, Graph visualization and navigation in information visualization: A survey, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 24--43, 2000 PDF

Other visualization (related or not to hierarchies):

Ben Shneiderman, The eyes have it: A task by data type taxonomy for information visualizations, The craft of information visualization: readings and reflections, 364--371, 2003 PDF


  1. Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K., and Mackinlay, Jock D., Information visualization using 3-D interactive animation, Communications of the ACM 36, 4 (April 1993), 56-71
  2. Carriere, Jeremy and Kazman, Rick, Interacting with huge hierarchies: Beyond cone trees, Proc. IEEE Information Visualization '95, IEEE Computer Press, Los Alamitos, CA (1995), 74-81.
  3. Harsha Kumard, Catherine Plaisant, Ben Shneiderman, Browsing Hierarchical Data with Multi-Level Dynamic Queries and Pruning, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 1995, 46, 103--124
  4. Lamping, John, Rao, Ramana, and Pirolli, Peter, A focus + context technique based on hyperbolic geometry for visualizing large hierarchies, Proc. of ACM CHI95 Conference: Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, NY (1995), 401-408
  5. Johnson, Brian, and Shneiderman, Ben, Tree-maps: A space-filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures, Proc. IEEE Visualization’91, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (1991), 284–291.
  6. Bladh, Thomas and Carr, David A. and Kljun, Matjaz, The Effect of Animated Transitions on User Navigation in 3D Tree-Maps, IV '05: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information Visualisation, 2005, 297--305, IEEE Computer Society
  7. 7.0 7.1 J. van Wijk, F. van Ham, and H. van de Wetering. Rendering hierarchical data. Communications of the ACM, 46(9):263, 2003.
  8. Petra Neumann, M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale and Anand Agarawala, PhylloTrees: Phyllotactic Patterns for Tree Layout, Proceedings of Eurographics / IEEE VGTC Symposium on Visualization, EuroVis 2006, Lisbon, Portugal
  9. J. Rekimoto and M. Green, “The Information Cube: Using Transparency in 3D Information Visualization”, Proceedings of the Third Annual Workshop on Information Technologies & Systems (WITS’93), 1993.
  10. Hideki Koike and Hirotaka Yoshihara, Fractal Approaches for Visualizing Huge Hierarchies, In Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, 1993, 55--60
  11. Francesca D. Ciccarelli, Tobias Doerks, Christian von Mering, Christopher J. Creevey, Berend Snel, and Peer Bork1, Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life, Science, vol. 311, no. 5765, pages 1283, 2006, AAAS
  12. Seok-Hee Hong and Tom Murtagh, PolyPlane: A New Layout Algorithm For Trees In Three Dimensions, 2006
  13. Keith Andrews, Helmut Heidegger. Information Slices: Visualising and Exploring Large Hierarchies using Cascading, Semi-Circular Discs. IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization (InfoVis’98)
  14. Danny Holten. Hierarchical Edge Bundles: Visualization of Adjacency Relations in Hierarchical Data. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS, VOL. 12, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2006
  15. Wikipedia Radial tree article
  16. Greg Book & Neeta Keshary. Radial Tree Graph Drawing Algorithm for Representing Large Hierarchies. University of Connecticut. 2001
  17. Chang-Sung Jeong, Alex Pang. Reconfigurable Disc Trees for Visualizing Large Hierarchical Information Space. IEEE InfoVis. 1998.
  18. Marti A. Hearst, Chandu Karadi. Cat-a-Cone: An Interactive Interface for Specifying Searches and Viewing Retrieval Results using a Large Category Hierarchy. ACM/SIGIR 97
  19. Teruhiko Teraoka, Minoru Maruyama. Adaptive Information Visualization Based on the User's Multiple Viewpoints - Interactive 3D Visualization of the WWW. IEEE InfoVis. 1997
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 S. Grivet, D. Auber, J. P. Domenger and G. Melancon. Bubble Tree drawing algorithm. Computational Imaging and Vision, 2006